Arabic at UGA and UGA Arabic Study Abroad

Table of Contents
Arabic Study at UGA
Arabic Major at UGA
Arabic Major Checklist at UGA
Arabic Minor at UGA
Arabic Study Abroad and Intensive Programs
Transfer Credit for Arabic Taken Abroad or at Universities
Scholarships for Arabic Study Abroad
Online Arabic Books and Downloadable Arabic Library
On-line Arabic Bookstores
Arabic Computing
Arabic Language Learning and Arabic Language and Culture Links
Transliteration of Arabic: Rules and Fonts
Related Islamic Languages Resources (Persian, Turkish, Urdu, Malay, and Indonesian)

Arabic Study at UGA

Arabic is both an Asian and African language. It is the language of roughly 208 million people: 110 million in Asia and 98 million in Africa. In addition, it is the liturgical language of about one billion Muslims throughout the world.

At UGA we offer a major and minor in Arabic. The major consists of a full four years of courses in Arabic, beginning with a three year (six semester) sequence in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA):
ARAB1001-2 Beginning Arabic (taught by Dr. Adel Amer and Yassin Mohamed); ARAB 2003-4 Intermediate Arabic (taught by Dr. Adel Amer); and ARAB 3005-6 Advanced Arabic, which is taught by Dr. Honerkamp. The text for these classes is Al-Kitaab, by Brustad, Al-Batal, and Al-Tonsi and published by Georgetown University Press. (This is generally considered to be the "state of the art" textbook for learning Arabic with the communicative approach.) These courses can be followed by Arabic 4201-2 (Advanced Conversation and Composition in MSA), Arabic 4300 (Media Arabic), and Arabic 4107 (Islamic Arabic I, taught by Dr. Honerkamp) and Arabic 4108 (Islamic Arabic II., taught by Dr. Godlas).

Note that ARAB3005-6 are prerequisites for 4000 level classes. Although these may be taken concurrently (this will put students at a disadvantage in the 4000 level classes); it is recommended that ARAB3005-6 be taken in the junior year and the 4000 level classes be taken in the senior year.

A recommended alternative is to attend the UGA-Morocco Maymester program followed by taking either ARAB 2003-2004 or ARAB 3005-3006 in a summer intensive at the Center for Language and Culture in Marrakech, Morocco (which is our partner institution). Then, one will be able to take the 4000 level classes in one's junior year, either at UGA or as part of an intensive semester or year in Morocco at CLC.

In the past few years, UGA has been able to host one or two federally funded Foreign Language Teaching Assistants for Arabic.

Arabic Major

The Regents of the University System of Georgia in 2008 approved the major in Arabic at UGA. At this point in 2012, 14 students are on track to graduate with a major in Arabic this spring. Students can now officially "declare" (and sign up for) the Arabic major. It consists of the following:
Required Courses: 21 semester hours
Seven courses of upper division Arabic, consisting of ARAB3005-6 Advanced Arabic, ARAB 4107-4108 Islamic Arabic, ARAB 4201-4202 Arabic Conversation and Composition, ARAB 4300 Media Arabic. NOTE: Students cannot substitute ARAB 4100 for any of the required coures and must take ARAB 4107-4108 in residence at UGA.
Major Electives: 15 hours
Courses in a foreign Language (other than Arabic) at least through the third semester (namely three courses of this language, although four courses of another language are recommended) including Persian, Turkish, Indonesian, Urdu, Bengali, Swahili, French, German, Spanish, Russian, and Chinese; any non-required Arabic upper division course such as ARAB 4000, ARAB 4100; RELI 4300, 4301, 4302, 4303, 4304, 4305, 4307, 4310; History 3561, 3562, 3564, 3570H, 3580, 4530, 4560, 4580; INTL 4370, 4490
Area F (Courses Related to the Major): 18 hrs
ARAB 1001-1002 (Beginning Arabic), 2003-2004 (Intermediate Arabic), plus an additional 6 semesters hours of course work chosen from any of the following areas: beginning/intermediate courses in Persian, Turkish, Urdu, Bengali, Indonesian, Swahili, anthropology, art, geography, history, international relations, linguistics, comparative literature, music, philosophy, political science, religion, sociology.
General Electives: 24 hrs, comprised of any combination of upper division courses and courses at any level. Keep in mind, however, that the total number of upper division hours taken for the BA degree must equal 39 hours at minimum (according to the regulations of the university).
Upper division (3-18 hours).
Any level (9-21 hours)
All ARAB courses must receive a grade of "C" (2.0) or above to count toward major.

Students considering majoring in Arabic should ideally begin studying Arabic in their freshman year.

  • Undergraduate Classes Offered in Arabic
  • Graduate Classes Offered in Arabic

    For information on our MA program in Religion with a concentration in Arabic and Islamic Studies, see the page, Courses Taught and Programs Supervised by Dr. Godlas (link fixed 26 December 2005).

    Arabic Major Checklist

    Any UGA students interesting in majoring in Arabic or currently majoring in Arabic should fill out, print, and take the Arabic Major Checklist (download as an excel spreadsheet) to their college advisor and to the Arabic Major advisors, Dr. Honerkamp and Dr. Godlas. Students can also view the checklist online or download the checklist as a pdf file.

    Arabic Minor

    The Arabic minor at UGA is comprised of 15 semester hours. Students must take Arabic 2003, 2004, 3005, and 3006, in addition to one additional course at the 4000 level or above--except for Arabic 4100. A minimum grade of "C" must be earned in each course.

    Arabic Study Abroad

  • Islam, Islamic Culture, and Arabic in Morocco A Maymester program centered in Marrakech and directed by Dr. Godlas and Dr. Honerkamp of the University of Georgia.

  • UGA Intensive Arabic Study Abroad UGA, in conjunction with the Center for Language and Culture in Marrakech, Morocco, offers summer intensives in Arabic. Students can take both semesters of Beginning Arabic (ARAB1001-1002), Intermediate Arabic (ARAB 2003-2004), or Advanced Arabic (ARAB 3005-3006). These one semester courses consist of 60 hours of Arabic (eight total credit hours, five class hours per day for ARAB 1001-2) and 45 hours (six total credit hours, four class hours per day for ARAB 2003-4 and 3005-6) in intensive programs. A prerequisite is the Morocco Maymester. For more information and application procedure for our Intensive Arabic study abroad classes, see the link above for our Maymester program in Morocco.

  • Comprehensive List of Summer and Intensive Programs in Arabic Compiled by the American Association of Teachers of Arabic

    For somewhat dated information on programs for intensive study of Arabic abroad see the article Arabic Study Programs in the Arab World, by Professors Barbara R. von Schlegell and John Hayes. (Fixed, July 4, 1999; December 29, 2002)

    Transfer Credit for Arabic Taken Abroad or at Other Institutions

    Because Arabic study abroad programs (other than the program at the Center for Language and Culture in Marrakech) or Arabic programs at other universities do not necessarily begin where our classes leave off and end where our classes begin and because the standards of other universities are not always the same as ours, we do not necessarily accept transfer credit for work taken at other institutions.

    What we offer, however, is that if you do to choose to study Arabic at other universities or private institutes here or abroad (other than the Center for Language and Culture in Marrakech, whose program we supervise; see CLC Intensive Arabic Program), no later than March 12 you must do the following:

  • go to OIE at UGA and get a credit equivalency form,
  • attach to it a letter naming the classes you are hoping to take and what you think are their equivalents at UGA (the only possibilities being ARAB 2003-4 (Intermediate Arabic), ARAB 3005-6 (Advanced Arabic), ARAB 4201-4202 Arabic Conversation and Composition, and ARAB 4300 Media Arabic).
  • You must also attach a scanned copy or photocopy of a detailed description (from the other university's or program abroad's catalogue) of the courses you hope to take (including the names of the textbooks used and the chapters to be covered, which you will probably only be able to get by emailing the program's director).
  • Make sure to include in your letter your email, phone number, and a return address to which we can mail your form if need be.
  • If you hope to take Arabic classes during the semester when you return to UGA, email us your full name and 810 student id number and the official names and numbers of the classes for which you would like to register, and we will request that the department secretary clear you for registering for those classses. In the event that you do not pass our equivalency exams (see below), we will permit you drop the advanced class or classes and enroll in the necessary classes at UGA.
  • Then bring those documents in to the Department of Religion office manager, who will pass it on to Dr. Honerkamp or Dr. Godlas.

    After reviewing the materials we will either send them back to you or to the appropriate office at UGA. If we require more information, we will let you know; but in most cases there will be no need for us to meet with you. You will NOT be given credit however, until you return and take an equivalency examination (or examinations), given by Dr. Honerkamp when you return. If you pass, you will get credit. If you fail, you will not get credit. If this kind of uncertainty is bothersome, we recommend taking the Center for Language and Culture's Arabic intensive programs. Whatever you do, a month before the end of the semester please do not come to us demanding that we sign your credit equivalency form.

    Scholarships for Study Abroad

    National Security Education Program offers American citizens scholarships for language study abroad. Students studying Arabic, Persian, and Turkish are given special consideration since these languages are among those deemed particularly important to the national interest.

    The University System of Georgia Board of Regents awards scholarships for study abroad to students who are enrolled in a University System of Georgia School (link fixed 26 December 2005). Any student in the University System of Georgia in good standing can apply study abroad scholarships. The scholarships can be used on any study abroad program, not just programs in the System. Students must send their scholarship applications directly to the institution at which they are enrolled in a degree program. UGA students should submit their applications at the Office of International Education (link fixed 13 March 2005). Deadlines are posted for each study abroad program.

    The new application for annual study abroad opportunities is ready. Information on it and other scholarships for UGA students is available at Office of International Education site (link fixed, Dec. 7, 2003).

    Note that Georgia residents who qualify for a Hope scholarship can use their scholarship to study abroad.

    Online Arabic Books or Downloadable Arabic Books

    Lane's Arabic-English Lexicon This is the best Arabic-English dictionary (derived from the great classical Arabic dictionaries) of classical Arabic, marred only by the fact that Lane died before he could complete it. Hence some entries from the letter "qaf" until the end of the alphabet are incomplete. A supplement was compiled for many of the incomplete entries; and these are included in this online edition at the end of the entries for each letter beginning from "qaf" until the end.

    Al-Mawsu'a al-shamila (The Comprehensive Encyclopedia) is a online and searchable library of roughly 5000 books including most of the major classical Arabic Islamic texts. There are three ways to use it, one is to download the software and the base library of 5000 books; a second is to just download the software and then upload whatever books you want to include. The virtue of these methods is that individuals in various places on the web are continually uploading Arabic books that you can download, read, and search using al-Shamila. To unpack the software, you will need to download a shareware program, WinRAR, however. Windows users will need to first determine whether they are running a 32 bit or 64 bit version of windows. Instructions for determining whether you are running a 32-bit version or 64-bit version are on the microsoft support site. For learning how to do download, install, and use al-Shamila, an indispensible handbook is Guide to Installing and Operating al-Maktabat ash-Shaamilah, the Second Edition (pdf format) or download and open it with WinRar: Guide to Installing and Operating al-Maktabat ash-Shaamilah, the Second Edition This handbook is in MS Word and was written by 'Abuu Najm Muhammad bin Lithriq at-Taeenuu al-Maysheekee. In addition to the two abovementioned methods, you can simply read or search the base library online. It is organized in three large categories (each of which has a number of subcategories): 1) Doctrines and the Sciences of the Qur'an and Hadith; 2) The Sciences of Islamic Jurisprudence; and 3) Other Sciences
    Each one of these broad categories can be searched, which can be a time saver. Also, the entire website accepts Boolean searches, in which by enclosing a phrase in quotation marks, the search will only produce results that have the search terms in the order enclosed by quotation marks. All of the subcategories and the titles included therein can be viewed at Khizanat al-kutub (The Repository of the Books). The books in each subcategory can be searched by clicking on the subcategory from this Khizanat page.

  • Researchers tracking down authors or book titles would do well to search the subcategory of Al-Tarajim wa-al-tabaqat, since among other useful sources searched in that category are the 20th century bio-bibliographical works of Zirikli Al-'Alam and Kahhala Mu'jam al-mu'allifin, which cites Hajji Khalifa's Kashf al-zunun and Baghdadi's Hadiyat al-'arifin as well as al-Zirikli's Al-'Alam. In addition, for tracking down authors or book titles, select the subcategory Faharis al-kutub, which among other books searches Hajji Khalifa's Kashf al-zunun and Baghdadi's Hadiyat al-'arifin as well as al-Kattani's Fihris al-faharis.
  • In subcategory 'Ulum al-lugha al-'arabiya, the great classical Arabic dictionaries such as Lisan al-'arab and Taj al-'arus can be searched.
  • A number of important Sufi texts are in the library, most being included in the section Kutub al-akhlaq wa-al-raqa'iq, where they can be searched. Among these texts are al-Sulami's Adab al-suhba and 'Uyub al-nafs, al-Makki's Qut al-qulub, Ansari's Manazil al-sa'irin, al-Qushayri's Risala, al-Nifari's al-Mawaqif wa-al-mukhatabat, al-Ghazali's Ihya' 'ulum al-din, Ibn 'Ajiba's Iqaz al-himam fi sharh al-Hikam al-din. Major Sufi hagiographical texts that are included in the Al-Tarajim wa-al-Tabaqat section are al-Sulami's Tabaqat al-Sufiya and Abu Nu'aym al-Isfahani's Hilyat al-awliya. A few Sufi or Sufi influenced Qur'an commentaries (Qushayri's Lata'if al-isharat, al-Tha'labi's Kashf al-bayan, Isma'il Haqqi Bursali/Bursevi's Ruh al-bayan, Ibn 'Ajiba's Bahr al-madid, and Alusi's Ruh al-ma'ani can be searched in the subcategory Kutub al-tafsir.

    A smaller but very useful online collection of classical Arabic Islamic texts is at Researchers can choose whatever books they want to search. In particular its copy of Lisan al-'arab (in the subcategory of Ma'ajim) is vocalized (and well-formatted in the search results).

    Al-Waraq On-line Library of Classical Arabic Texts Although for a while it was necessary to pay to be able search this invaluable library, now it is free again. Containing over a million pages in Arabic organized in the following categories: Adab, History, Ansab, Geography and Travelogues, Hadith, Tarajim, Philosophy and Logic, 'Ulum al-qur'an, 'Ulum al-hadith, 'Ulum al-lugha, 'Aqida, Medicine, Interpretation of Dreams, Sufism, Bibliography, and Miscellaneous sciences. Among its dictionaries are the two most comprehensive Arabic-Arabic dictionaries:

  • Lisan al-'Arab of Ibn Manzur.
  • Taj al-'Arus of Zabidi.
    It also contains the Qut al-qulub of Abu Talib al-Makki, an important early Sufi compendium.

    Nida' al-Iman, a vast online Arabic book library, including one of my favorite Arabic books, Kashf al-khafa' and the important Arabic-Arabic dictionary Qamus al-muhit of Fayruzabadi., which in Arabic is titled "Mawqi' al-Islam" (The Site of Islam), has a large collection of classical Arabic Islamic texts, among its many aspects. Its Hadith Library is particularly rich, containing each of the nine major Sunni hadith collections, as well as the major commentaries on the most important of these collections, and (toward the top on the right sided) both a basic and sophisticated search engine (click on "bahth mutaqqadim" in the middle of the search box) that will search any or all of the books contained in the Hadith library, including the commentaries. See as well its Tafsir Library, containing the Qur'an commentaries (in Arabic) of Tabari, Qurtubi, Ibn Kathir, and Jalalayn.

    Al-Tafsir.comThe most comprehensive online collection of tafsirs (Qur'an commentaries). While currently the vast majority of the tafsirs are all in Arabic (although the site does contain translations of the Qur'an in numerous languages), in the future more Qur'an commentaries translated into English will also be included. Among the translations now on-line is the well-known Tafsir al-Jalalayn.

    Kitabkhanah-ye Islami (Islamic Library) a number of important Islamic texts in Arabic, largely (but by no means completely) Shi'i texts (fixed Dec. 11, 2003). It contains an online version of the important Arabic-Arabic dictionary Lisan al-'arab. This collection includes a compilation of the names and brief descriptions of those who were said to have fabricated or forged hadiths. Al-Wadda'un wa-ahadithuhum al-mawdu'ah (Fabricators and Their Fabricated Hadith).

    al-Shifa (The Healing) of Qadi 'Iyad (d. 544/1149-50), the Arabic text is online here. This is probably the most important hagiography of the Prophet Muhammad (s). It has been translated into English by Ayesha Bewley.

    Al-Muhaddith Islamic Library (fixed March 30, 2007) Readable, Searchable and/or Downloadable Arabic Research Library for research in Arabic primary sources in Islamic Studies. You can also download Arabic-Arabic, Arabic-English, and English-Arabic dictionaries here.

    On-line Arabic Bookstores

  • Wakeel Arabic Book Service This book service (formerly al-Razi Books), based in Amman will ship you Arabic books and will also photocopy and bind out of print works.
  • Leila Books (link fixed 18 August, 2005) is a bookshop in Cairo where Arabic books can be ordered by e-mail.
  •, located in California,has a large selection of Arabic Islamic texts with a searchable database.(Link fixed, February 25, 2004.)
  • is the web site of Dar al-Kutub al-'ILmiyah, a major publisher of Arabic books in Beirut. In addition to their own books, they can supply customers with books published by other publishers.

    Arabic Computing, Surfing the Arabic Web, and Translating

  • Typing and Viewing Arabic in Windows Vista A pdf document written by the University of Richmond. At the end of the document are the instructions for viewing Arabic on the Web (New, Dec. 4, 2012). In case something is unclear, reading the following instructions from Penn. State may help:
  • Typing and Viewing Any Language Using Windows Vista A webpage developed at Penn. State. (New, Dec. 4, 2012)

  • Arabicizing Your Computer (for Windows 2000 and Windows XP) (link fixed Dec. 4, 2012) by al-Husein N. Madhany in PDF format (which is an updated an enhanced version of the original).

  • Arabic Keyboard Layout for Windows XP and Windows 2000 This is especially useful for reminding one of where characters that are not commonly used are located, such as short vowels and case markers. Nevertheless, most users of more recent systems can find the instructions for seeing one's keyboard included in the instructions for "Typing and Viewing Arabic (or any language) for Windows Vista" given above.

  • Google Translator from Arabic to English
  • Google Translator from English to Arabic.
  • Web-based Translation of Arabic This is a computerized automatic translation service provided for free by Systran. Although rudimentary, it is still useful. Go to the box at the bottom of the screen that first appears, hit the down arrow and select Arabic to English.

  • Attention MAC Users: The Arabic MacIntosh A comprehensive page for Arabic computing on a Mac. Note that if you're a Mac user who wants to type Arabic, you still cannot do it in MS Word for the Mac. You must use Apple's free and downloadable "Open Office" or another Mac Word Processor like Nisus. (Updated, Dec. 4, 2012)
  • Aramedia Group sells numerous Arabic software packages, including comprehensive searchable collections of hadith, as well as the Qur'an in Arabic with various Arabic commentaries and recited by some of the premier reciters of the Muslim world. (Updated Dec. 4, 2012)

    Links for Arabic Language and Culture

  • Information on the Arabic Script and Its History at the website of
  • Teach Yourself to Read Arabic a free service from the DurusulQuran Website. It is helpful to expand the window to the full size of your screen by clicking on the "expand windows" icon at the top righthand corner of your screen (in Windows).
  • On-Line Arabic Instruction You can learn the Arabic alphabet and some rudimentary Arabic for free from the first level of this site, which includes good quality sound from Real Audio, where you can download the current version of RealPlayer for free (link fixed 18 August, 2005). Lessons 6-9 of the first level introduce the Arabic script. After you get RealPlayer, you can hear the sound of each letter of the Arabic alphabet by clicking on it. To repeat the sound, click on the right-pointing arrow on RealPlayer.
  • Learning the Arabic Alphabet Although lacking sound, this is an otherwise comprehensive site for learning how to read the Arabic alphabet.
  • Dialogs from Let's Learn Arabic, the "proficiency" based textbook by Roger Allen of the University of Pennsylvania. You will need RealAudio for this. Note that the previous original link is now offline, so now go to Let's Learn Arabic: the dialogues at the Webarchive, but wait 30 seconds or so while it loads. (fixed Dec. 4, 2012).
  • My Arabic Teacher 5.1 is a commercial CD-ROM designed to teach Modern Standard Arabic.
  • Arabic Calligraphy, a four-part article by the calligrapher Mamoun Sakkal.
  • The Six Major Scripts of Arabic Calligraphy (link fixed 26 December, 2005)
  • The Qur'an: Arabic text and recitation The recitation is by Shaykh Khalil al-Husari and is considered to be ideal for learning the proper pronunciation of the Qur'an. Because of the importance of Qur'anic Arabic to Modern Standard Arabic, students of MSA will find this to be a useful learning tool. Real Audio 3.0 is needed in order to hear this.
  • American Association of Teachers of Arabic (AATA) contains information and links concering various publications, programs of study, opportunities (jobs and grants), software, on-line discussion groups (listservs), and other web sites in the field of Arabic Studies. (Fixed 17 November 2002; checked 4 December 2012.)
  • Free Self-paced Beginning Modern Standard Arabic created by the US Government No strings attached! Just click "register," give them your name and email; and create a password; and you're off.
  • Lessons on Arabic Grammar (post-beginning). Free LingNet (Defense Language Institute) Arabic site, excellent lessons focusing on numerous points of Arabic grammar (link fixed 26 December 2005; fixed 4 December 2012).
  • Free, post-beginning, Arabic Language Learning at the website of the Defense Language Institute GLOSS program geared to multiple levels (1 thru 4), using both reading and listening modes, and on a variety of topics, which you can choose from (such as culture, politics, and society, to name a few). Click on Arabic and select whatever level, modality, topic, etc, and then hit the search button in the bottom right hand corner and then choose whatever lesson you wish. (Updated, Dec. 4, 2012)
  • Passages read in accents from ten different Arabic countries
  • Arabic Language Learning, Arabic Language, and Culture
  • Lane's Arabic-Engish Lexicon on CD-ROM Now available from Fons Vitae Press, this is a necessity for the library of anyone who is serious about studying classical Arabic and Islam.

    Arabic Newspapers and Media Outlets Online

  • Al-Masa, Arabic Newspaper (link fixed 13 March, 2006)
  • Al-Jumhuriya, Arabic Newspaper (link fixed 18 August, 2005)
  • The Arabic Newsstand (link fixed 18 August, 2005) is a comprehensive list of links to all of the Arabic on-line newspapers on the Web. It also contains newspapers in English that deal with the Arab world.
  • BBC Arabic News Contains both written news and online radio broadcasts.
  • Voice of America (link fixed 18 August, 2005) This site used to contain radio broadcasts in Arabic, but the Arabic VOA service was eliminated. There are still broadcasts in other languages such as Persian (Farsi) and Turkish. Just choose the language you want from the list. For languages that do not appear on the main page, choose "other languages," then point and click on the map for the linguistic region you are interested in.

    Transliteration of Arabic: Rules and Fonts

  • Rules For Transliterating Arabic Although there are a number of systems for romanizing Arabic, the Library of Congress system, linked here in "pdf" format readable with Adobe Acrobat, is probably the system most commonly used by scholars. All serious university level students of Islamic Studies and Arabic should learn this system.
  • (link fixed 26 December, 2005) Arial Unicode Unicode is the new industry standard for fonts, a standard that supercedes the old ASCII character set of 256 characters. Unicode contains 40,000 characters, including the characters of all major and many minor alphabets. Among the characters are all those that are necessary for transliterating Arabic. One drawback to Arial Unicode is that it is a sans serif font, and hence, although it is useful for Web publishing, it (like sans serif fonts as a whole) is generally regarded as inferior to a serif font for works that will appear in print. Arial Unicode can be purchased at this link; but you will not need to download it if you have Microsoft Office 2000 Service Release 1 (SR-1) or Office XP (if you do a full install), since Arial Unicode is included with them. Once you have downloaded it, you will be able to read websites that are constructed in unicode, particularly Arabic websites. You can also download a free and streamlined Unicode font, Gentium for Windows and Macintosh OSX or Gentium for Macintosh OS9 for transliterating Arabic. Gentium takes up far less space than Arial Unicode and is a serif font. If you want to type in transliterated Arabic (which is essential for scholars of Arabic who publish in Western languages), you will need to assign key strokes to the transliteration characters. You can do this from MSWord by selecting "insert" from the menu at the top of an MSWord document. Then select "symbol". Then select the font "Arial Unicode" or "Gentium" from the font menu inside the "font box" at the top of the page. Then in the character menu for the symbols, you select the transliteration character to which you want to assign keystrokes, then click on "shortcut key" and assign keystrokes to the transliteration characters. (If you run into a problem, go to the "Help" menu at the top of the MSWord menu, then click on Microsoft Word Help, then, in the menu that appears, put "shortcut" in the blank. Then select "About using shortcut keys." If you are still unsuccessful, read
  • Arabicizing Your Computer (link fixed Jan. 11, 2007) a PDF article by al-Husein N. Madhany (U. of Chicago) that I have noted previously on this page.
  • Titus Cyberbit Basic Font is a serif font that can be downloaded at this link. This font can also be used for transliteration of Arabic, Persian, and Ottoman Turkish. One of its virtues is that you can download either a Windows or MAC compatible version. (Link fixed, March, 2004.)

    Other Islamic Languages

  • Steingass Persian-English Dictionary This is the online version of the most useful Persian to English dictionary of classical Persian.
  • Collection of Persian-Persian Dictionaries. This is a search engine that simultaneously gives one the definition of words in major Persian-Persian dictionaries such as the Lughat'namah of Dehkhoda and the Farhang-e Mo'in, among others.
  • Islamic Languages Page at MSA SUNY Buffalo
  • Persian Language Learning Resources (link fixed 18 August, 2005)
  • Lingnet (Defense Language Institute) Persian/Farsi Resources (link fixed 26 December, 2005)
  • Learning Practical Turkish (link fixed 13 March, 2006)
  • Turkish Language Learning Resources (link fixed 18 August, 2005)
  • Nedir Ne Demek An excellent Turkish-Turkish and Turkish-English online dictionary, all in one.
  • Turkish--Turkish Dictionary (link fixed 18 August 2005) This is an extraordinary dictionary. It gives numerous idiomatic usages of words as well as examples illustrating how the words are used.
  • Turkic Languages A discussion and set of pages on all the Turkic languages.
  • Uzbek-English Dictionary by accomplished Uzbek language specialist, Will Dirks. (Fixed Feb. 4, 2008)
  • Basic Turkmen (link fixed 18 August 2005) is a page introducing the text and audio/video cassettes for the course Basic Turkmen by Dr. Larry Clark. The site also contains an email address to contact in order to obtain ordering information.
  • Urdu Language Learning Resources (link fixed 26 December 2005) Urdu basic language survival guide.
  • Learn the Urdu Alphabet Although lacking sound, this is generally well-done site with many examples useful for learning how to read the Urdu alphabet.
  • Simple online English-Urdu dictionary.
  • Urdu-English dictionary.
  • Searchable dictionary of Urdu and Hindi
  • Malay Language Learning Resources (link fixed 18 August 2005) A comprehensive collection of sites.
  • Indonesian Language Learning by Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Northern Illinois University.